Tag Archives: Business

Deloitte “CFO Signals” Report Q2 2017 – Notable Aspects

Recently Deloitte released their “CFO Signals” “High-Level Summary” report for the 2nd Quarter of 2017.

As seen in page 2 of the report, there were 132 survey respondents.  As stated:  “Each quarter (since 2Q10), CFO Signals has tracked the thinking and actions of CFOs representing many of North America’s largest and most influential companies.

All respondents are CFOs from the US, Canada, and Mexico, and the vast majority are from companies with more than $1 billion in annual revenue. For a summary of this quarter’s response demographics, please see the sidebars and charts on this page. For other information about participation and methodology, please contact nacfosurvey@deloitte.com.”

Here are some of the excerpts that I found notable:

from page 3:

Perceptions

How do you regard the current/future status of the North American, Chinese, and European economies? Perceptions of North America declined slightly, with 65% of CFOs rating current conditions as good (near the four-year high) and 58% expecting better conditions in a year. Perceptions of Europe improved to 17% and 30%, while China rose strongly to 28% and 32%. Page 6.

What is your perception of the capital markets? Eighty-five percent of CFOs say debt financing is attractive (up from 81% last quarter), while attractiveness of equity financing held steady for public company CFOs (at 42%) and rose for private company CFOs (from 38% to 46%). Seventy-eight percent of CFOs now say US equities are overvalued—just below last quarter’s survey high. Page 7.

Expectations

What is your company’s business focus for the next year? CFOs indicate a strong bias toward revenue growth over cost reduction (63% vs. 18%), and investing cash over returning it (62% vs. 16%). They shifted back to a bias toward existing offerings over new ones (46% vs. 32%), and again increased their bias toward current geographies over new ones (72% vs. 14%). Page 10.

Compared to the past 12 months, how do you expect your key operating metrics to change over the next 12 months? Revenue growth expectations rose from 4.3% to 5.6% and are above their two-year average. Earnings growth rose to 8.7%, up from 7.3% and well above the two-year average. Capital spending growth, which skyrocketed last quarter, slipped from 10.5% to a still high 9.0%. Domestic hiring growth held steady at 2.1%. Page 11.

from page 9:

Sentiment

Coming off a survey high last quarter, own-company optimism remains strong on very high optimism in the US and Mexico; Manufacturing and Services are high, and Energy/Resources rebounded.

This quarter’s net optimism declined from last quarter’s survey-high +50 to a still-high +44. Nearly 55% of CFOs expressed rising optimism (down from 60%), and 11% cited declining optimism (up from 10%).

Net optimism for the US declined from last quarter’s +58 to +47 this quarter. Canada fell from +40 to +20, while optimism in Mexico bounced back very strongly from -71 to +50.

Manufacturing and Services are again above +50, while Energy/Resources rose significantly to +47. Technology and Financial Services declined significantly, but both are still strong by historical standards. T/M/E is negative, but the sample size is very low this quarter.

Please see the full-detail report for charts specific to individual industries and countries.

from page 11:

Expectations

Key growth metrics remain relatively strong, bolstered by Canada and Mexico; the outlook for Energy/Resources and Healthcare/Pharma improved significantly.

Revenue growth expectations rose from 4.3% to 5.6% and are above their two-year average. US expectations continued to rise. Canada rose to a five-year high and Mexico bounced back from a two-year low. Energy/Resources rose to its survey high, and Healthcare/Pharma bounced back from last quarter’s survey low.

Earnings growth expectations are up to 8.7% from last quarter’s 7.3% and hit a twoyear high. All geographies improved significantly. Manufacturing is at its highest level in two years; Healthcare/Pharma bounced back strongly from last quarter’s three-year low.

Capital investment growth expectations fell to 9.0% from 10.5%, but still sit at their secondhighest level in five years. Canada and Mexico nearly doubled, but US expectations fell. Energy/Resources is again near its survey high. Healthcare/Pharma and Services are both up sharply; Technology declined significantly.

Domestic hiring growth held steady at 2.1%.  Canada bounced back from last quarter, and the US declined slightly. Healthcare/Pharma is highest of the industries, with Manufacturing the lowest (despite sitting near its two-year high).

Among the various charts and graphics in the report are graphics depicting trends in “Own Company Optimism” on page 9 and “Economic Optimism” found on page 6.

_____

I post various business and economic surveys because I believe they should be carefully monitored.  However, as those familiar with this site are aware, I do not necessarily agree with many of the consensus estimates and much of the commentary in these surveys.

_____

The Special Note summarizes my overall thoughts about our economic situation

SPX at 2435.61 as this post is written

Corporate Profits As A Percentage Of GDP

In the last post (“1st Quarter 2017 Corporate Profits“) I displayed, for reference purposes, a long-term chart depicting Corporate Profits After Tax.

There are many ways to view this measure, both on an absolute as well as relative basis.

One relative measure is viewing Corporate Profits as a Percentage of GDP.  I feel that this metric is important for a variety of reasons.  As well, the measure is important to a variety of parties, including investors, businesses, and government policy makers.

As one can see from the long-term chart below (updated through the first quarter), (After Tax) Corporate Profits as a Percentage of GDP is at levels that can be seen as historically (very) high.  While there are many reasons as to why this is so, from a going-forward standpoint I think it is important to recognize both that such a notable condition exists, as well as contemplate and/or plan for such factors and conditions that would come about if (and in my opinion “when”) a more historically “normal” ratio of Corporate Profits as a Percentage of GDP occurs.  This topic can be very complex in nature, and depends upon myriad factors.  In my opinion it deserves far greater recognition.

(click on chart to enlarge image)

CP:GDP

Data Source: FRED, Federal Reserve Economic Data, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; accessed May 26, 2017

_____

The Special Note summarizes my overall thoughts about our economic situation

SPX at 2414.55 as this post is written

1st Quarter 2017 Corporate Profits

Today’s (May 26, 2017) GDP release (Q1, 2nd Estimate)(pdf) was accompanied by the BLS Corporate Profits report for the 1st Quarter.

Of course, there are many ways to adjust and depict overall Corporate Profits.  For reference purposes, here is a chart from the St. Louis Federal Reserve (FRED) showing the Corporate Profits After Tax (without IVA and CCAdj) (last updated May 26, 2017, with a value of $1735.8 Billion SAAR):

Corporate Profits After Tax

Here is the Corporate Profits After Tax measure shown on a Percentage Change from a Year Ago perspective:

Corporate Profits After Tax Percent Change From Year Ago

Data Source: FRED, Federal Reserve Economic Data, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis: Corporate Profits After Tax [CP]; U.S. Department of Commerce: Bureau of Economic Analysis; accessed May 26, 2017; https://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/CP

_________

I post various indicators and indices because I believe they should be carefully monitored.  However, as those familiar with this blog are aware, I do not necessarily agree with what they depict or imply.

_____

The Special Note summarizes my overall thoughts about our economic situation

SPX at 2415.16 as this post is written

CEO Confidence Surveys 1Q 2017 – Notable Excerpts

On April 6, 2017, The Conference Board released the 1st Quarter Measure Of CEO Confidence.   The overall measure of CEO Confidence was at 68, up from 65 in the fourth quarter. [note:  a reading of more than 50 points reflects more positive than negative responses]

Notable excerpts from this April 6 Press Release include:

CEOs’ assessment of current economic conditions improved further, with 71 percent saying conditions were better compared to six months ago, up from 59 percent in the final quarter of 2016. Business leaders were also considerably more positive in their assessment of current conditions in their own industries. Now, 60 percent state conditions in their own industries have improved versus 46 percent in the fourth quarter.

CEOs’ optimism regarding the short-term outlook for the economy eased slightly, but remains rather strong. Currently, 65 percent expect economic conditions to improve over the next six months, compared to approximately 67 percent last quarter. The outlook for their own industries, however, was more favorable, with 67 percent of CEOs anticipating an improvement over the next six months, up from 58 percent in the fourth quarter of 2016.

The Business Roundtable last month also released its CEO Economic Outlook Survey for the 1st Quarter of 2017.   Notable excerpts from the March 14, 2017 release, titled “Business Leaders Positive on Economy:  Expectations for Sales, Hiring & Investment Make Sharp Rise“:

The Business Roundtable CEO Economic Outlook Index — a composite of CEO projections for sales and plans for capital spending and hiring over the next six months — made its largest increase since the fourth quarter of 2009.

The Index jumped 19.1 points, from 74.2 in the fourth quarter of last year to 93.3 in the current quarter. For the first time in seven quarters, the Index has risen above its historical average of 79.8. Its highest level over the past 10 years was 113, reached in Q1 2011.

CEO plans for hiring increased by 18 points from the previous quarter, while expectations for sales and capital expenditures increased by 21 and 18.4 points, respectively, over the previous quarter.

CEOs project 2.2 percent GDP growth in 2017, a 0.2 percent increase over their projection for 2017 made last December.

_____

I post various economic forecasts because I believe they should be carefully monitored.  However, as those familiar with this site are aware, I do not necessarily agree with many of the consensus estimates and much of the commentary in these forecast surveys.

_____

The Special Note summarizes my overall thoughts about our economic situation

SPX at 2359.47 as this post is written

Corporate Profits As A Percentage Of GDP

In the last post (“4th Quarter 2016 Corporate Profits“) I displayed, for reference purposes, a long-term chart depicting Corporate Profits After Tax.

There are many ways to view this measure, both on an absolute as well as relative basis.

One relative measure is viewing Corporate Profits as a Percentage of GDP.  I feel that this metric is important for a variety of reasons.  As well, the measure is important to a variety of parties, including investors, businesses, and government policy makers.

As one can see from the long-term chart below (updated through the fourth quarter), (After Tax) Corporate Profits as a Percentage of GDP is at levels that can be seen as historically (very) high.  While there are many reasons as to why this is so, from a going-forward standpoint I think it is important to recognize both that such a notable condition exists, as well as contemplate and/or plan for such factors and conditions that would come about if (and in my opinion “when”) a more historically “normal” ratio of Corporate Profits as a Percentage of GDP occurs.  This topic can be very complex in nature, and depends upon myriad factors.  In my opinion it deserves far greater recognition.

(click on chart to enlarge image)

Corporate Profits as a Percentage of GDP

Data Source: FRED, Federal Reserve Economic Data, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; accessed March 30, 2017

_____

The Special Note summarizes my overall thoughts about our economic situation

SPX at 2369.94 as this post is written

4th Quarter 2016 Corporate Profits

Today’s (March 30, 2017) GDP release (Q4, 3rd Estimate)(pdf) was accompanied by the BLS Corporate Profits report for the 4th Quarter.

Of course, there are many ways to adjust and depict overall Corporate Profits.  For reference purposes, here is a chart from the St. Louis Federal Reserve (FRED) showing the Corporate Profits After Tax (without IVA and CCAdj) (last updated March 30, 2017, with a value of $1741.2 Billion):

CP_3-30-17

Here is the Corporate Profits After Tax measure shown on a Percentage Change from a Year Ago perspective:

CP percent change from year ago

Data Source: FRED, Federal Reserve Economic Data, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis: Corporate Profits After Tax [CP]; U.S. Department of Commerce: Bureau of Economic Analysis; accessed March 30, 2017; https://research.stlouisfed.org/fred2/series/CP

_________

I post various indicators and indices because I believe they should be carefully monitored.  However, as those familiar with this blog are aware, I do not necessarily agree with what they depict or imply.

_____

The Special Note summarizes my overall thoughts about our economic situation

SPX at 2364.90 as this post is written

Deloitte “CFO Signals” Report Q1 2017 – Notable Aspects

Recently Deloitte released their “CFO Signals” “High-Level Summary” report for the 1st Quarter of 2017.

As seen in page 2 of the report, there were 132 survey respondents.  As stated:  “Each quarter (since 2Q10), CFO Signals has tracked the thinking and actions of CFOs representing many of North America’s largest and most influential companies. All respondents are CFOs from the US, Canada, and Mexico, and the vast majority are from companies with more than $1 billion in annual revenue. For a summary of this quarter’s response demographics, please see the sidebars and charts on this page. For other information about participation and methodology, please contact nacfosurvey@deloitte.com.”

Here are some of the excerpts that I found notable:

from page 3:

Perceptions

How do you regard the current/future status of the North American, Chinese, and European economies? Perceptions of the North American economy improved again, with 66% of CFOs rating current conditions as good (a four-year high) and 62% expecting better conditions in a year. Perceptions of Europe improved to 12% and 28%, while China rose to 20% and 19%. Page 6.

What is your perception of the capital markets? Eighty-one percent of CFOs say debt financing is attractive (up slightly from 79% last quarter), while attractiveness of equity financing held steady for public company CFOs (at about 40%) and rose for private company CFOs (from 29% to 38%). Eighty percent of CFOs now say US equities are overvalued—a new survey high. Page 7.

Sentiment

Compared to three months ago, how do you feel about the financial prospects for your company? Net optimism rose sharply from last quarter’s +23.4 to +50.0 (a survey high). About 60% of CFOs express rising optimism (up from 43%), and those citing declining optimism fell from 20% to 10%. Page 8.

Expectations

What is your company’s business focus for the next year? CFOs indicate a strong bias toward revenue growth over cost reduction (60% vs. 18%), and investing cash over returning it (59% vs. 15%). They shifted to a bias toward new offerings over existing ones (42% vs. 38%), and markedly increased their bias toward current geographies over new ones (67% vs. 13%). Page 9.

Compared to the past 12 months, how do you expect your key operating metrics to change over the next 12 months? Revenue growth expectations rose from 3.7% to 4.3% and are slightly above their two-year average. Earnings growth rose to 7.3%, up from 6.4% and also above the two-year average. Capital spending growth skyrocketed from 3.6% to 10.5% (the highest level in almost five years). Domestic hiring growth rose from 1.3% to 2.1%. Page 10.

from page 8:

Sentiment

Net optimism—already fairly strong since 2Q16—rose sharply to a new survey high amid overwhelmingly positive sentiment among US CFOs.

This quarter’s net optimism spiked to a survey high +50. Nearly 60% of CFOs expressed rising optimism (up from 43% last quarter), and about 10% cited declining optimism (down from 20%).

Net optimism for the US rose sharply from last quarter’s already-strong +34 to +58 this quarter. Canada rose from +7 to +40, while optimism in Mexico slid from -64 to -71.

Healthcare/Pharma and Energy/Resources CFOs were among the most optimistic last quarter, but are among the least optimistic this quarter (joined by Retail/Wholesale). Financial Services CFOs were among the least optimistic last quarter, but are among the most optimistic this quarter, joined by Technology and Telecom/Media/Entertainment (T/M/E).

from page 10:

Expectations

All key growth metrics rose this quarter, with capital spending skyrocketing; the outlook for Healthcare/Pharma declined markedly, but the outlook for Manufacturing and Energy/Resources improved.

Revenue growth expectations rose to 4.3% and are slightly above their two-year average. US expectations rebounded from last quarter’s dismal level, while Mexico fell to a two-year low. Energy/Resources is near its two-year high, and Healthcare/Pharma fell to its survey low.

Earnings growth expectations of 7.3% are up significantly from last quarter and above their two-year average. The US improved, but Mexico declined again. Manufacturing is highest, hitting its highest level in two years; Healthcare/Pharma fell to its lowest level in more than three years.

Capital investment growth expectations of 10.5% are up drastically from last quarter and sit at their highest level in nearly five years. All countries improved significantly from last quarter. Manufacturing and Energy/Resources rose sharply, with both near their survey highs.

Domestic hiring growth rose from last quarter’s weak showing of 1.3% to 2.1% and is at its second-highest level in nearly two years. Canada is low, but up from last quarter. Manufacturing sits at a two-year high, but is lowest of the industries (despite strength in other metrics).

Among the various charts and graphics in the report are graphics depicting trends in “Own Company Optimism” on page 8 and “Economic Optimism” found on page 6.

_____

I post various business and economic surveys because I believe they should be carefully monitored.  However, as those familiar with this blog are aware, I do not necessarily agree with many of the consensus estimates and much of the commentary in these surveys.

_____

The Special Note summarizes my overall thoughts about our economic situation

SPX at 2352.66. as this post is written

March 2017 Duke/CFO Global Business Outlook Survey – Notable Excerpts

On March 15, 2017 the March Duke/CFO Global Business Outlook was released.  It contains a variety of statistics regarding how CFOs view business and economic conditions.

In this CFO survey, I found the following to be the most notable excerpts – although I don’t necessarily agree with them:

Results also show that CFOs are feeling the most confident about economic growth than they’ve been in more than a dozen years, and they strongly support several of the president’s initiatives.

These findings and detailed analysis of tax and economic reforms are from the Duke University/CFO Global Business Outlook. The survey has been conducted for 84 consecutive quarters and spans the globe, making it the world’s longest-running and most comprehensive research on senior finance executives. This quarter, nearly 900 CFOs responded to the survey, which ended March 10. Results are for the U.S. unless stated otherwise.

also:

The Optimism Index jumped this quarter to 69 (on a 100-point scale), the highest level in 14 years and much higher than the long-run average of 60.

“The jump in business optimism is leading to strong hiring and spending plans for 2017,” Graham said. “Our analysis of past forecasts shows that the Optimism Index is an accurate predictor of GDP growth and employment over the next year.”

Sixty-one percent of U.S. firms plan to increase their payrolls in 2017, with an average increase of about 3 percent (median 1 percent). Wage hikes are expected to average nearly 4 percent. Capital spending is expected to increase 6 percent on average (median 3 percent), a notable improvement from flat or negative spending plans for most of 2016.

“There’s a disconnect here,” said Duke finance professor Campbell R. Harvey, founding director of the CFO Survey. “Despite the optimism, the high rate of employment growth and wages, and the substantial possibility of both corporate and individual tax cuts, CFOs have very pessimistic growth forecasts, where only 16.8 percent believe we can hit 3 percent growth in 2017. That is surprising.”

The CFO survey contains two Optimism Index charts, with the bottom chart showing U.S. Optimism (with regard to the economy) at 69, as seen below:

Duke CFO Optimism March 2017

It should be interesting to see how well the CFOs predict business and economic conditions going forward.   I discussed past various aspects of this, and the importance of these predictions, in the July 9, 2010 post titled “The Business Environment”.

(past posts on CEO and CFO surveys can be found under the “CFO and CEO Confidence” tag)

_____

I post various economic forecasts because I believe they should be carefully monitored.  However, as those familiar with this blog are aware, I do not necessarily agree with many of the consensus estimates and much of the commentary in these forecast surveys.

_____

The Special Note summarizes my overall thoughts about our economic situation

SPX at 2381.38 as this post is written

CEO Confidence Surveys 4Q 2016 – Notable Excerpts

On January 5, 2017, The Conference Board released the 4th Quarter Measure Of CEO Confidence.   The overall measure of CEO Confidence was at 65, up from 50 in the third quarter. [note:  a reading of more than 50 points reflects more positive than negative responses]

Notable excerpts from this January 5 Press Release include:

CEOs’ assessment of current economic conditions was considerably more optimistic, with close to 60 percent saying conditions were better compared to six months ago, up from just 17 percent last quarter. Business leaders’ appraisal of current conditions in their own industries also improved significantly, with 46 percent stating conditions in their own industries have improved versus only 21 percent in the third quarter.

CEOs’ short-term outlook for the U.S. economy also improved markedly, with approximately 67 percent expecting better economic conditions over the next six months, up from 25 percent last quarter. The outlook for their own industries was also more favorable, with 58 percent of CEOs anticipating an improvement over the next six months, compared to about 23 percent in the third quarter.

The Business Roundtable last month also released its CEO Economic Outlook Survey for the 4th Quarter of 2016.   Notable excerpts from the December 6, 2016 release, titled “Business Leaders:  Plans for Hiring Rise, Expectations for Sales Increase“ (pdf):

In their first GDP estimate for 2017, CEOs projected 2 percent growth next year. While the outlook for hiring is positive, the overall results suggest continued economic growth, albeit at a slow pace.

The Business Roundtable CEO Economic Outlook Index — a composite of CEO projections for sales and plans for capital spending and hiring over the next six months — rose by 4.6 points, from 69.6 in the third quarter to 74.2 in the fourth quarter. The Index remains below its historical average of 79.6.

CEO expectations for sales over the next six months increased by 4.5 points, and expectations for hiring increased by a more robust 14.8 points over last quarter. However, CEO plans for capital expenditures fell by 5.4 points relative to last quarter.

_____

I post various economic forecasts because I believe they should be carefully monitored.  However, as those familiar with this blog are aware, I do not necessarily agree with many of the consensus estimates and much of the commentary in these forecast surveys.

_____

The Special Note summarizes my overall thoughts about our economic situation

SPX at 2268.06 as this post is written

Deloitte “CFO Signals” Report Q4 2016 – Notable Aspects

Recently Deloitte released their “CFO Signals” “High-Level Summary” report for the 4th Quarter of 2016.

As seen in page 2 of the report, there were 137  survey respondents.  As stated:  “Each quarter (since 2Q10), CFO Signals has tracked the thinking and actions of CFOs representing many of North America’s largest and most influential companies. All respondents are CFOs from the US, Canada, and Mexico, and the vast majority are from companies with more than $1 billion in annual revenue. For a summary of this quarter’s response demographics, please see the sidebars and charts on this page. For other information about participation and methodology, please contact nacfosurvey@deloitte.com.”

Here are some of the excerpts that I found notable:

from page 3:

Perceptions

How do you regard the current/future status of the North American, Chinese, and European economies? Perceptions of North America have improved, with 43% of CFOs rating its economic health as good and 58% expecting improvement next year. Perceptions of Europe remain pessimistic at just 8% and 13%, while China rebounded slightly to 24% and 17%. Page 6.

What is your perception of the capital markets? Seventy-nine percent of CFOs say debt financing is attractive (down from 89% last quarter), while attractiveness of equity financing held steady for public company CFOs (at about 40%) and rose for private company CFOs (from 24% to 29%). Seventy percent of CFOs say US equities are overvalued—just under the survey high. Page 7.

Sentiment

Overall, what risks worry you the most? CFOs again mention global economic growth and government regulation. New for this quarter is uncertainly regarding the new US administration’s future actions, with CFOs voicing concerns about the possibility of protectionism hurting global trade, and about tax reform possibly slowing near-term business spending. Page 8.

Compared to three months ago, how do you feel now about the financial prospects for your company? This quarter’s net optimism rose from last quarter’s +19.7 to +23.4 (slightly above the two-year average). Forty-three percent of CFOs express rising optimism (up from 35%), and the proportion citing declining optimism rose from 16% to 20%. Page 9.

Expectations

What is your company’s business focus for the next year? CFOs indicate a bias toward revenue growth over cost reduction (45% vs. 31%), and investing cash over returning it (56% vs. 17%). CFOs again indicate a bias toward existing offerings over new ones (41% vs. 32%), current geographies over new ones (57% vs. 22%), and organic growth over inorganic (58% vs. 18%). Page 10.

Compared to the past 12 months, how do you expect your key operating metrics to change over the next 12 months? Revenue growth expectations fell from 4.2% to 3.7% and are near their survey lows. Earnings growth rose to 6.4%, above last quarter’s 6.1% but again near 1Q16’s survey-low 6.0%. Capital spending growth fell to 3.6% (well off the two-year average). Domestic hiring growth fell to 1.3% from 2.3%. Page 11.

from page 9:

Sentiment

Net optimism bounced back strongly over the last two quarters; this quarter’s net optimism rose again due to positive sentiment within the US.

This quarter’s net optimism remains strong at +23.4. Forty-three percent of CFOs expressed rising optimism (up from 35% last quarter), and 20% cited declining optimism (up from 16%).

Net optimism for the US rose sharply from last quarter’s +16 to +34 this quarter. Canada fell from +50 to +7, and optimism in Mexico fell sharply from +50 to -64.

Healthcare/Pharma, Telecom/Media/ Entertainment, and Energy/Resources are the most optimistic; Retail/Wholesale and Financial Services are the least.

from page 11:

Expectations

Key growth metrics remain near their survey lows. CFOs from the US and from the Financial Services and Retail/Wholesale industries weighed on the averages.

Revenue growth expectations of 3.7% are down from last quarter and are again among the lowest in the survey’s history. US expectations are the second-lowest in survey history (back to 2Q10), and Financial Services sits at its new survey low.

Earnings growth expectations of 6.4% are up slightly from last quarter, but still near their survey low. Healthcare/Pharma and Energy/Resources are the highest; Financial Services is lowest.

Capital investment growth expectations of 3.6% are down sharply from last quarter and are the second-lowest in survey history. The US came in at its second-lowest level. Retail/Wholesale expects negative growth, with about half of CFOs expecting a decline.

Domestic hiring growth fell from last quarter’s very strong showing of 2.3% to 1.3% and is slightly below its two-year average. Technology and Healthcare/Pharma are lowest.

Among the various charts and graphics in the report are graphics depicting trends in “Own Company Optimism” on page 9 and “Economic Optimism” found on page 6.

_____

I post various business and economic surveys because I believe they should be carefully monitored.  However, as those familiar with this blog are aware, I do not necessarily agree with many of the consensus estimates and much of the commentary in these surveys.

_____

The Special Note summarizes my overall thoughts about our economic situation

SPX at 2269.75 as this post is written